Text adapted from: "The adult patient with a sleep disorder," in Psychiatry in primary care by Dora Zalai, M.R. Goolam Hussain and Colin Shapiro (CAMH, 2019).
Resources for patients
Sleepio Web-based CBT-I that tailors sessions to users’ specific sleep problems.
Ontario Sleep Clinics: Offers a self-help insomnia management program.
CBT-i Coach: Developed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and the Stanford School of Medicine to augment in-person CBT for insomnia.
Quiet Your Mind and Get to Sleep: Solutions to Insomnia for Those with Depression, Anxiety, or Chronic Pain, by Colleen E. Carney and Rachel Manber, New Harbinger, 2009.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2014). International Classification of Sleep Disorders (3rd ed.). Darien, IL: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Carney, C.E. & Manber, R. (2009). Quiet Your Mind and Get to Sleep: Solutions to Insomnia for Those with Depression, Anxiety, or Chronic Pain. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger.
Edinger, J.D. & Sampson, W.S. (2003). A primary care “friendly” cognitive behavioral insomnia therapy. Sleep, 26, 177–182.
Johns, M. (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep, 14, 540–545.
Morgenthaler, T., Kramer, M., Alessi, C., Friedman, L., Boehlecke, B., Brown,T. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2006). Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: An update. Sleep, 29, 1415–1419.
NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. (2005). NIH Consensus and State-of-the-Science Statements, 22 (2), 1–30.
Sateia, M.J., Buysse, D.J., Krystal, A.D., Neubauer, D.N. & Heald, J.L. (2017). Clinical practice guideline for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 13, 307–349.
Soldatos, C.R., Dikeos, D.G. & Paparrigopoulos, T.J. (2000). Athens Insomnia Scale: Validation of an instrument based on ICD-10 criteria. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 48, 550–560.
Soldatos, C.R., Dikeos, D.G. & Paparrigopoulos, T.J. (2003). The diagnostic validity of the Athens Insomnia Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 55, 263–267.
About the Authors
Dora Zalai, MD, PhD, CPsych, Psychologist, Oakville Centre for Cognitive Therapy, Oakville, ON.
M.R. Goolam Hussain, MD, CCFP, Medical director, Tri-Hospital Sleep Laboratory West, Mississauga, ON
Colin Shapiro, MBBCh, PhD, MRCPsych, FRCPC, Professor of Psychiatry and Ophthalmology, University of Toronto; director, International Sleep Clinic, Parry Sound, ON; director, Youthdale Child and Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Toronto, ON.