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Depression Centre for Addiction
and Mental Health

 Health Info A-Z



What i​s depression?

Depression is much more than simple unhappiness. Clinical depression, sometimes called major depression, is a complex mood disorder caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, personality, stress and brain chemistry. While it can suddenly go into remission, depression is not something that people can “get over” by their own effort.

What are the different types of depression?

    • Seasonal affective disorder: This type of depression is usually affected by the weather and time of the year.
    • Postpartum depression: This occurs in women, following the birth of a child. Upwards of 10 per cent of women will experience this type of depression.
    • Depression with psychosis: In some cases, depression may become so severe that a person loses touch with reality and experiences hallucinations (hearing voices or seeing people or objects that are not really there) or delusions (beliefs that have no basis in reality).
    • Dysthymia: This is a chronically low mood with moderate symptoms of depression.

    Wh​at are the signs & symptoms of depression?

    The main symptom of depression is a sad, despairing mood that:

      • is present most days and lasts most of the day
      • lasts for more than two weeks
      • impairs the person’s performance at work, at school or in social relationships.

      Other symptoms of​​ depression include:

      • changes in appetite and weight
      • sleep problems
      • loss of interest in work, hobbies, people or sex
      • withdrawal from family members and friends
      • feeling useless, hopeless, excessively guilty, pessimistic or having low self-esteem
      • agitation or feeling slowed down
      • irritability
      • fatigue
      • trouble concentrating, remembering and making decision
      • crying easily, or feeling like crying but being not able to
      • thoughts of suicide (which should always be taken seriously)
      • a loss of touch with reality, hearing voices (hallucinations) or having strange ideas (delusions).

      How does depression affect different populations?


      Depression is more common in women, though the sex difference diminishes with age in Canada. Many hormonal factors may contribute to the increased rate of depression in women, particularly during times such as menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy and postpartum, miscarriage, pre-menopause and menopause.


      Men with depression typically have a higher rate of feeling irritable, angry and discouraged. This can make it harder to recognize depression in men. The rate of completed suicide in men is four times that in women, although more women attempt suicide.

      Older adults

      Some people have the mistaken idea that it is normal for older adults to feel depressed. Older adults often don't want to talk about feeling hopeless or sad or about losing interest in normally pleasurable activities or experiencing prolonged grief after a loss.


      A child who is depressed may pretend to be sick, refuse to go to school, cling to a parent or worry that the parent may die. Older children may sulk, get into trouble at school, be negative or grouchy and feel misunderstood. Because normal behaviours vary from one childhood stage to another, it can be difficult to tell whether a child is going through a temporary “phase” or has depression.

      What are the causes and risk factors of depression? 


      Genetic or family history of depression, psychological or emotional vulnerability to depression, biological factors such as imbalances in brain chemistry and in the endocrine/immune systems, or a major stress in the person's life may play a part in the onset of depression.

      Depressive symptoms may be:


      • the result of another illness that shares the same symptoms, such as lupus or hypothyroidism
      • a reaction to another illness, such as cancer or a heart attack
      • caused by an illness itself, such as a stroke, where neurological changes have occurred.

      What is the treatment for depression?​​

      ​The most commonly used treatments are pharmacotherapy (medications), psychoeducation, psychotherapy and brain intervention therapies such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST). These treatments may be used individually or in combination. Self-help organizations, run by clients of the mental health system and their families, can be an important part of treatment and recovery for people with depression and their families.

      Clinical depression needs to be managed over a person's lifetime. Depression, like disorders such as diabetes, can be effectively managed and controlled by combining a healthy lifestyle and treatments. Watching for early warnings of relapse may also prevent a full depressive episode.

      dapted from Depression: An Information Guide © 1999, 2008, 2013 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health​​​

      Where can I find help, treatment and support for depression?

      Treatment at CAMH

      Help for families and friends

      Ontario Mental Health Helpline (open 24/7 for treatment anywhere in Ontario)

      CAMH Switchboard 416-535-8501
      CAMH General Information Toronto: 416-595-6111 Toll Free: 1-800-463-6273
      Connex Ontario Help Lines
      Queen St.
      1001 Queen St. W
      Toronto, ON
      M6J 1H4
      Russell St.
      33 Russell St.
      Toronto, ON
      M5S 2S1
      College St.
      250 College St.
      Toronto, ON
      M5T 1R8
      Ten offices across Ontario