What is schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health problem.
People with schizophrenia can have a range of symptoms including
periods when they cannot tell the difference between what is real and
what is imagined. Schizophrenia seriously disturbs the way people think,
feel and relate to others.
About one person in 100 develops schizophrenia. Men
and women are affected equally; however, men tend to have their first
episode of schizophrenia in their late teens or early 20s. For women,
the onset is usually a few years later. In most cases, the symptoms
develop gradually. In some cases the onset is rapid.
What are the signs & symptoms of schizophrenia?
The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into two
categories—positive symptoms and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms
(sometimes called psychotic symptoms) refers to behaviours and
experiences of people with schizophrenia that people without
schizophrenia do not have (e.g., hallucinations, delusions). Negative
symptoms refers to traits that are absent or reduced in people with
schizophrenia (e.g., social withdrawal, lack of motivation).
- delusions (fixed, false beliefs that are not consistent with the person's culture, and have no basis in fact)
- hallucinations (people hear, see, taste, smell or feel something that does not actually exist)
- disorganized thoughts (unconnected thoughts that make it impossible to communicate clearly with other people)
- disorganized mood (finding it hard to express feelings; feeling
inappropriate or intense bursts of emotion; feeling empty of any
- disorganized behaviour (cannot complete everyday tasks such as bathing, dressing appropriately and preparing simple meals)
- changes in sensitivity (more sensitive and aware of other people; or withdrawn and seeming to pay no attention to others).
- slowing of physical activity levels or, more rarely, overactivity
- reduced motivation, for example, problems finishing tasks or making long-term plans
- loss of interest in the feelings and lives of others
- less concern for personal appearance.
What are the causes & risk factors of schizophrenia?
No single cause has been found for schizophrenia,
although there is a clear genetic link. Environmental and social factors
may also be involved in the development of schizophrenia.
What is the treatment for schizophrenia?
People with schizophrenia may be treated as
outpatients or they may be hospitalized. Treatment usually consists of
medication and psychosocial interventions.
Antipsychotic medications are the main class of
drugs used to treat schizophrenia. They relieve symptoms of psychosis
and may help to prevent relapse. Other medications may be prescribed to
help manage the side-effects of antipsychotics or to treat particular
symptoms, such as depression, anxiety or sleep difficulties.
Psychosocial treatments include:
- cognitive-behavioural therapy
- family support and education and family counselling
- social skills and life skills training.
Schizophrenia usually develops in young people
during the years when they would normally develop the skills needed for
independent living. A variety of programs, such as case management,
academic and employment counselling and housing programs, are often used
to help people develop these skills.
It is difficult to predict how well a person will recover after the onset of schizophrenia.
- Some people only have one episode of symptoms.
- Some people have recurring episodes of symptoms. Many of these
people can live independently with limited supports between episodes
- Some people will need medication and support for the rest of their lives.
Adapted from Schizophrenia: A Guide for People with
Schizophrenia and Their Families © 1999 Centre for Addiction and Mental
Where can I find help, treatment and support for schizophrenia?
Treatment at CAMH
Help for Families from CAMH
Ontario Mental Health Helpline (open 24/7 for treatment anywhere in Ontario)
Where can I find more information from CAMH related to schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia 101 (online tutorial) Please Note:Your pop-up blocker must be turned off to view this tutorial
Psychosis 101 (online tutorial) Please Note:Your pop-up blocker must be turned off to view this tutorial
First Episode Psychosis: An Information Guide
Promoting Recovery from First Episode Psychosis: A Guide for Families
Beyond Psychosis: Exceeding Expectations from First Episode to Recovery (video)
Understanding Psychiatric Medications: Antipsychotics